Biology 11

Biology Syllabus

Unit Title Marks
1 Diversity of Living Organisms 07
2 Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals 12
3 Cell: Structure and Function 15
4 Plant Physiology 18
5 Human Physiology 18
Total 70

Unit I: Diversity of Living Organism

Chapter-1: The Living World

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter-2: Biological Classification

Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.

Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.

Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom

Salient features and classification of animals non chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level


Unit 2: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants

Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants

What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.

Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).

Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals

Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and exampleAnimal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)s.


Unit 3: Cell Structure and Function

Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life

Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

Chapter-9: Biomolecules

Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.

Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.


Unit 4: Plant Physiology

Chapter-11: Transport in Plants

Transport in plants; Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata;Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.

Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition

Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation

Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development

Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth; differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.


Unit 5: Human Physiology

Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption

Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea

Chapter-17: Breating and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle-contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary Idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addision’s disease.